Lygia Clark and a friend at an art opening

Lygia Clark, Neo-Concretism, Tropicália, and Brazilian Constructivism

12 min read

Lygia Clark is one of several Brazilian artists who are known worldwide for their contributions to global art movements. As an artist, she challenged conventional notions—inviting viewers to engage with her work on a sensory and participatory level. Clark’s significance within the Brazilian art scene cannot be overstated, as she played a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of artistic innovation in the country.

Clark’s work dealt with the engrained hierarchy between viewer and creator. Throughout her career, Clark was interested in the transformative potential of art and the process of artistic creation. Many of her works were designed to be manipulated and transformed by viewers. Clark discovered ways to highlight the fluid and dynamic nature of artistic expression by engaging the audience.

Integral to understanding Clark’s contributions is an exploration of Brazilian Constructivism—a movement that emerged as a response to the socio-political climate of Brazil in the mid-20th century. Brazilian Constructivism sought to fuse geometric abstraction with social concerns—laying the groundwork for a new form of artistic expression that resonated deeply with Clark’s own artistic vision.

Throughout this article, we will examine the many ways in which Lygia Clark contributed to not only Brazilian Constructivism but also to other significant modern art movements like Tropicália and Neo-Concretism. Today, Clark remains an inspiration to contemporary artists dealing with the confines that still exist around what critics and hobbyists consider “fine art.”

An Introduction to Clark’s Early Life and Artistic Explorations

Brâncuși’s studio, 1920

Lygia Clark was born in 1920 in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. She was deeply influenced by her upbringing in a culturally vibrant environment. Growing up in a family that valued education and the arts, she developed an early passion for creativity and expression.

After studying painting at the National School of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro, Clark continued her artistic education in Paris, where she was exposed to the avant-garde movements of the European art scene. It was during the time Clark spent in Paris that she encountered the works of artists such as Fernand Léger and Constantin Brâncuși, whose innovative approaches to form and abstraction would leave a lasting impression on her artistic practice. Brâncuși’s studio is pictured above.

Exploring the Evolution of Clark’s Artistic Style

Throughout her career, Lygia Clark’s artistic style underwent a series of transformations as she sought to break away from traditional modes of representation and embrace a more experimental approach to art-making. Influenced by the Constructivist principles of geometric abstraction and the synthesis of art and life, Clark began to explore new avenues of artistic expression that challenged the boundaries of conventional art forms. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Clark initially aligned herself with the geometric abstraction movement—exploring the use of simple forms and bold colors in her paintings.

Her early works—characterized by geometric forms and bold colors—gradually evolved into more dynamic and interactive installations that invited viewers to engage with her art on a sensory and participatory level. By the mid-1950s, Clark became associated with Brazilian Constructivism—a movement that sought to merge geometric abstraction with social concerns. She embraced Constructivist principles in her work, emphasizing the synthesis of art and life. Embracing the ethos of Brazilian Constructivism, Clark sought to create art that was not merely static objects but rather dynamic experiences that encouraged active engagement and dialogue.

Major Works and Projects That Epitomize Her Contributions to Constructivism

Installation view, Lygia Clark’s Bichos, 1965 (photo: yigruzeltil)

Several major works and projects exemplify Lygia Clark’s contributions to Constructivism and her innovative approach to art-making. Among these, her “Bichos” series stands out as a seminal body of work that exemplifies her exploration of geometric abstraction and kinetic sculpture. Consisting of modular metal elements connected by hinges, the “Bichos” (meaning “creatures” in Portuguese) are sculptures that can be manipulated and transformed by the viewer, allowing for endless variations and configurations.

Another significant project is Clark’s “Nostalgia of the Body” series, which consists of wearable sculptures designed to be worn on the body, blurring the boundaries between art object and human subject. Through these and other works, Lygia Clark pushed the boundaries of Constructivist art—challenging conventional notions of form, space, and viewer interaction. More on her Constructivist art later!

A Bit of Historical Context for Brazilian Constructivism

Vladimir Tatlin, Counter-relief, sculpture of several materials, from 1916

The roots of Constructivism in Brazil can be traced back to the early 20th century, with the influx of European avant-garde ideas and movements. Constructivism—with its emphasis on geometric abstraction and the integration of art with social and political concerns—found fertile ground in Brazil’s burgeoning modernist scene.

The Russian Constructivist movement—spearheaded by artists such as Vladimir Tatlin and El Lissitzky, exerted a significant influence on Brazilian artists—inspiring them to explore new approaches to form and composition. Additionally, the legacy of the Bauhaus and its emphasis on the synthesis of art, craft, and technology further fueled the development of Constructivist ideas in Brazil.

Of course, we must contextualize the influence of Russian Constructivism and the Bauhaus on Brazilian Constructivism. It’s important to distinguish these influences correctly. Brazilian artists were indeed inspired by these movements, but the local adaptation and transformations they underwent were significant, incorporating uniquely Brazilian cultural and social elements that were less about the mechanical reproduction valued in European Constructivism and more about subjective experience and sensorial involvement, as seen in Clark’s work.

Key Figures and Movements that Shaped Brazilian Constructivism

Brazilian Constructivism was shaped by a diverse array of artists, intellectuals, and movements that emerged in the first half of the 20th century. Among the key figures were artists like Tarsila do Amaral—whose modernist paintings blended elements of Brazilian culture with avant-garde aesthetics—and Anita Malfatti—whose expressive style paved the way for future generations of Brazilian artists.

Movements such as the Semana de Arte Moderna (Week of Modern Art) in 1922 and the Grupo Frente in the 1950s played instrumental roles in fostering a climate of experimentation and innovation—laying the groundwork for the emergence of Constructivism in Brazil.

Socio-Political Backdrop of Brazil During the Emergence of Constructivism

The emergence of Constructivism in Brazil coincided with a period of significant socio-political upheaval in the country. Throughout the 20th century, Brazil experienced profound economic and social transformations, as rapid urbanization and industrialization reshaped the fabric of society.

Against the backdrop of political instability and authoritarian regimes, artists and intellectuals increasingly turned to avant-garde movements like Constructivism as a means of critiquing the status quo and envisioning alternative futures. The embrace of Constructivist principles reflected a desire among Brazilian artists to engage with pressing social issues and reimagine the role of art in society—making it a pivotal moment in the country’s cultural history.

Principles of Brazilian Constructivism in Lygia Clark’s Work

Lygia Clark’s early works were characterized by geometric abstraction and the use of simple forms—reflecting her engagement with Brazilian Constructivist movements. Influenced by the legacy of Constructivism in Brazil, Clark explored the expressive potential of geometric shapes and bold colors◊creating compositions that emphasized clarity and precision.

Her geometric abstractions served as a foundation for her later explorations into more experimental forms of art-making—laying the groundwork for her groundbreaking contributions to Brazilian Constructivism.

Her Exploration of Interactive and Participatory Experiences

Central to Lygia Clark’s artistic practice was a commitment to interactive and participatory art experiences—a hallmark of Brazilian Constructivism. Clark sought to blur the boundaries between art and life—inviting viewers to actively engage with her artworks through tactile exploration and physical interaction.

Her “Bichos” series—consisting of modular metal sculptures that could be manipulated and transformed by the viewer—exemplifies her commitment to democratizing the art-making process and fostering dialogue between artist and audience. Through her participatory works, Clark challenged traditional notions of authorship and spectatorship—forging new pathways for artistic expression in Brazil and beyond. This series was shown at the Museum of Modern Art in New York during their Lygia Clark: The Abandonment exhibition. Learn more about that show here.

Her Addition of Sensory Engagement and Bodily Experience into Art

In addition to her exploration of geometric abstraction and participatory art practices, Lygia Clark was deeply interested in sensory engagement and bodily experience as essential components of artistic expression. This exploration is what makes her such an icon of Latin American art and of modern art in general. Her later works—including her the “Nostalgia of the Body” series—consisted of wearable sculptures designed to be worn on the body—blurring the boundaries between art object and human subject.

By incorporating sensory stimuli and bodily sensations into her artworks, Clark sought to create immersive experiences that transcended the visual realm—inviting viewers to explore the interplay between mind, body, and environment. This emphasis on sensory engagement and bodily experience reflects Clark’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of Brazilian Constructivism and redefining the parameters of contemporary art practice.

Neo-Concretism and Lygia Clark

Hélio Oiticica, another founder of the Neo-Concretist Movement.

Neo-Concretism emerged in Brazil in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a response to the strict rationalism of Constructivism. Both building upon and challenging the principles of Brazilian Constructivism, Neo-Concrete artists sought to inject subjectivity and emotion into their work—rejecting the mechanistic tendencies of their predecessors.

Neo-Concretism was officially founded by a group of artists including Clark, Hélio Oiticica, and others, who signed the Neo-Concrete Manifesto in 1959. This movement was a response to the overly rationalistic approach of earlier Concrete art, emphasizing a greater sense of subjectivity and viewer interaction, which Clark deeply embodied in her work.

The Neo-Concrete movement emphasized the importance of individual experience and viewer interaction—encouraging a more organic and intuitive approach to art-making. Key figures of Neo-Concretism included Lygia Clark, Hélio Oiticica, and Lygia Pape—among other Brazilian artists—who played instrumental roles in shaping the movement and challenging established artistic norms. In fact, many believe that Clark co-founded the movement.

Clark’s Role in Neo-Concretism and Her Departure from Strict Constructivist Principles

Lygia Clark’s involvement in Neo-Concretism marked a significant departure from her earlier adherence to strict Constructivist principles. While she remained committed to the synthesis of art and life, Clark began to explore more subjective and intuitive modes of expression—moving away from the geometric abstractions of her earlier work.

Instead of viewing art as static objects to be contemplated from a distance, Clark emphasized the importance of sensory engagement and bodily experience—inviting viewers to actively participate in the creation and interpretation of her artworks.

Through her innovative works such as the “Bichos” series and her “Nostalgia of the Body” sculptures, Clark pushed the boundaries of Neo-Concrete art—challenging traditional notions of form, space, and viewer interaction. Her emphasis on sensory engagement and bodily experience resonated deeply with the ethos of Neo-Concretism—inspiring a new generation of artists to embrace a more holistic and experiential approach to art-making.

Tropicália and Lygia Clark

Tropicália emerged in Brazil in the late 1960s as a vibrant cultural movement that encompassed various art forms, including music, visual art, theater, and literature. Influenced by a diverse array of sources, including Brazilian popular culture, avant-garde aesthetics, and political activism, Tropicália sought to challenge traditional notions of Brazilian identity and culture, embracing hybridity, experimentation, and cultural diversity. As this resource from The Tate explains, Hélio Oiticica “Played an important role in defining the movement,” and Lygia Clark was also involved.

While primarily known for her contributions to visual art, Lygia Clark had connections to the Tropicália movement and shared its spirit of experimentation and cultural hybridity. Although she did not directly participate in the musical aspects of Tropicália, Clark’s engagement with sensory experience and bodily engagement resonated with the movement’s emphasis on breaking down barriers between high and low culture and redefining the parameters of Brazilian identity.

Influence of Tropicália on Clark’s Artistic Vision

Tropicália had a profound influence on Clark’s artistic vision and experimentation—inspiring her to explore new forms of artistic expression that challenged established conventions and boundaries. While her work remained distinct from the musical and theatrical aspects of Tropicália, Clark’s engagement with sensory experience and participatory art practices reflected a shared commitment to cultural innovation and social critique. Through her groundbreaking works, Clark contributed to the broader cultural ferment of Tropicália—leaving an indelible mark on the Brazilian art scene and beyond.

Exploring Her Impact and Legacy

Lygia Clark’s influence on subsequent generations of Brazilian artists cannot be overstated, as her innovative approach to art-making continues to inspire new generations of practitioners. Her emphasis on sensory engagement, participatory art, and the integration of art with life has left a lasting legacy in Brazilian art—shaping the practices of artists across various disciplines.

Clark’s impact extends beyond the borders of Brazil, as her groundbreaking works have garnered international recognition and reshaped the global abstract art discourse. Her participation in international exhibitions and her inclusion in major museum collections have helped to elevate her status as one of the most significant artists of the 20th century—contributing to a broader reevaluation of Latin American art within the global art canon.

In an era marked by increasing globalization and the blurring of boundaries between art and everyday life, Lygia Clark’s ideas and practices remain as relevant as ever. Her emphasis on sensory engagement, participatory art, and the integration of art with life continues to resonate with contemporary artists who seek to challenge established norms and forge new pathways for artistic expression. Through her pioneering work, Clark has left an enduring legacy that continues to shape the trajectory of contemporary art practice.

Criticism and Debates Surrounding Lygia Clark’s Work

Of course, Lygia Clark’s work has also faced criticism from some quarters for challenging traditional notions of art and authorship. Her emphasis on participatory art practices and the integration of art with life has led to debates about the role of the artist, the status of the art object, and the nature of artistic experience. Some critics have questioned whether Clark’s emphasis on collaboration and viewer interaction undermines the authority of the artist and blurs the boundaries between art and non-art.

Critics have also raised concerns about the implications of Clark’s emphasis on participatory art practices—particularly in terms of power dynamics and the distribution of agency. Questions have been raised about who benefits from participatory art projects, who gets to participate, and who ultimately controls the outcomes. Some have argued that Clark’s participatory works risk reproducing existing hierarchies and inequalities, rather than challenging them, and that they may ultimately serve to reinforce the authority of the artist rather than democratizing the art-making process.

Responses to Art World Criticisms of Lygia Clark’s Work

In response to criticisms of her work, proponents of Lygia Clark’s art have emphasized its transformative potential and its ability to challenge established norms and open up new possibilities for artistic expression. They argue that Clark’s emphasis on participatory art practices reflects a commitment to democratizing the art-making process and fostering dialogue between artist and audience.

Ongoing discussions about Clark’s legacy continue to grapple with these complex issues—seeking to balance the transformative potential of her work with its ethical and political implications.

Lygia Clark: Brazilian Artist and Global Art Influence

Through her innovative exploration of geometric abstraction, participatory art practices, and sensory engagement, Clark reshaped the landscape of Brazilian art and left an indelible mark on the global art scene. Her pioneering spirit and commitment to pushing the boundaries of artistic expression continue to inspire contemporary artists and scholars alike.

Clark’s enduring legacy lies not only in her groundbreaking artworks but also in her profound influence on subsequent generations of Brazilian artists and her contributions to the broader discourse on contemporary art practices. As we reflect on the continued relevance and importance of studying Lygia Clark and Brazilian Constructivism, we are reminded of the power of art to challenge conventions, provoke thought, and foster meaningful dialogue.

By engaging with Clark’s work and the rich history of Brazilian Constructivism, we gain insight into the transformative potential of art and its ability to shape our understanding of the world around us.

To learn more about Lygia Clark, please check out the following resources.

Lygia Clark: The Abandonment of Art, 1948–1988 by Connie Butler, Luis Pérez-Oramas, and Briony Fer: This comprehensive catalogue accompanied a major retrospective exhibition of Lygia Clark’s work at The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. It provides in-depth analysis and contextualization of Clark’s artistic practice.

Lygia Clark: The Artist’s Body by Guy Brett: This book focuses on Clark’s exploration of the body in her art, particularly her later works that emphasized sensory engagement and participatory experiences. It offers insights into Clark’s innovative approaches to art-making.

Lygia Clark: From Object to Event by Paulo Venancio Filho: Written by a prominent Brazilian art historian, this book traces the trajectory of Clark’s artistic development, from her early geometric abstractions to her later participatory works. It examines the evolution of her ideas and the philosophical underpinnings of her art.

The Experimental Exercise of Freedom: Lygia Clark, Gego, Mathias Goeritz, Hélio Oiticica, and Mira Schendel edited by Cesar Oiticica Filho and Connie Rogers Tilton: While this book covers multiple artists, it includes chapters dedicated to Lygia Clark, offering insights into her work within the context of experimental art practices in Latin America.

Lygia Clark: The Reader edited by Sergio B. Martins and Hélio Márcio Dias Ferreira: This collection brings together essays, interviews, and primary documents related to Lygia Clark. It even includes what Clark wrote—offering a multifaceted view of her life, work, and legacy. It serves as a valuable resource for scholars and enthusiasts interested in Clark’s art and ideas.