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Eco Feminism Explained: Principles, Practices, and Critiques

10 min read

Eco feminism—a movement at the intersection of environmentalism and feminism—has received a series of well-founded criticisms over the years. These include lack of scientific rigor, oversimplification of complex issues, rejection of other marginalized groups, and more. However, the philosophies underpinning this movement also offer profound insights and solutions that significantly contribute to the broader fields of gender equality and environmental stewardship. By emphasizing the interconnectedness of oppressions, eco feminism advocates for holistic ethical frameworks rooted in care, empathy, and interconnectedness. It empowers marginalized communities, critiques patriarchal structures, and incorporates indigenous knowledge to foster sustainable practices. With its global and intersectional perspective, eco feminism promotes innovative and adaptable solutions to contemporary environmental challenges. This movement underscores the need for integrated approaches that advance both social justice and ecological health—highlighting the crucial role of sustainable practices in achieving a more equitable and resilient world. In this article, we will explore the evolution of eco-feminism—tracing its roots from the convergence of feminist and environmental movements in the 1970s to its current manifestations.

Eco Feminist Foundations: The Origins of Feminist Political Ecology


The origins of eco feminism can be traced back to the 1970s when feminist and environmental movements began to converge. Early influences included the growing awareness of the interconnectedness between the oppression of women and the exploitation of nature. Key figures such as Françoise d’Eaubonne, who coined the term “eco feminism” in her 1974 book “Le Féminisme ou la Mort,” played a significant role in shaping the movement. Ironically, her book has been criticized for its simplification of the suffering of other marginalized groups and for its lack of universality.

D’Eaubonne argued that the patriarchal system was responsible for both the subjugation of women and the environmental crisis, suggesting that feminist principles could provide solutions to ecological problems. This period also saw the rise of grassroots activism for both gender equality and environmental justice, with women leading environmental campaigns and protests, recognizing that environmental degradation and its consequences disproportionately affect women and marginalized communities.

Pioneering Works

Pioneering works that laid the groundwork for eco feminism include Susan Griffin’s “Woman and Nature: The Roaring Inside Her” (1978) and Carolyn Merchant’s “The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution” (1980). Griffin’s poetic narrative highlighted the symbolic connections between women and nature, challenging the dualistic thinking that separated humans from the natural world. Both books helped spur and feminist ecological revolution.

Merchant’s historical analysis revealed how the scientific revolution contributed to the domination of both women and nature, linking the rise of mechanistic worldviews with gender inequality (specifically, the marginalization of women’s roles in society). These texts, among others, provided a critical examination of the historical and cultural roots of environmental and gender injustices, and they became foundational to the development of eco feminist theory and practice.

Intersection of Ecological Feminism with Other Movements

Eco feminism did not develop in isolation but intersected significantly with other social movements of the time, such as the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. Activists and scholars within these movements recognized the common threads of oppression and exploitation that ran through racial issues, gender relations, and environmental concerns.

For instance, the civil rights movement’s emphasis on social justice and equity resonated with eco feminist critiques of environmental racism and the disproportionate impacts of ecological destruction on communities of color. Similarly, the anti-war movement’s critique of militarism and its environmental consequences aligned with eco feminist arguments against the destructive impacts of patriarchal power structures. This intersectionality enriched eco feminist discourse, broadening its scope and fostering alliances that strengthened its impact and reach.

Underpinnings of Eco-Feminist Theory

Eco feminist theory draws both symbolic and literal connections between women and nature, emphasizing their shared experiences of exploitation and marginalization under patriarchal systems. Symbolically, women have often been associated with nature through cultural and mythological narratives that portray them as nurturing, life-giving, and connected to the earth. These associations, while sometimes romanticized, have also been used to justify women’s subordination, paralleling the domination of nature.

Literally, eco feminists highlight how women, particularly in rural and indigenous communities, are often the primary caretakers of natural resources, making them disproportionately affected by environmental degradation. This connection underscores the need for a holistic approach to environmentalism that includes gender equity, recognizing that sustainable solutions must address both ecological and social injustices.

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Critiques of Patriarchy

Eco feminism offers a robust critique of patriarchal structures, arguing that the same mindset that justifies the domination of women also underpins the exploitation of nature. This critique extends to various dimensions of patriarchy, including economic, political, and cultural systems that prioritize control, competition, and hierarchical power dynamics.

Eco feminists assert that these systems perpetuate environmental destruction through practices such as industrialization, deforestation, and resource extraction, which prioritize profit over ecological balance. By linking the oppression of women with environmental degradation, eco feminism challenges traditional environmentalism to incorporate feminist insights and advocates for systemic changes that promote both gender and environmental justice.

This critique also calls for a reevaluation of societal values, promoting collaboration, reciprocity, and care as alternatives to patriarchal domination.

Eco Feminist Ethics

Eco feminist and environmental ethics propose a framework centered on care, interconnectedness, and the intrinsic value of all living beings. This ethical approach contrasts with anthropocentric and androcentric perspectives that view nature solely as a resource for human exploitation. The ecofeminist philosophy advocates for an ethic of care, which emphasizes empathy, responsibility, and the nurturing of relationships, both among humans and between humans and the natural world.

Interconnectedness is another key principle, recognizing that ecological and social systems are deeply interwoven and that harm to one aspect inevitably affects the whole. By promoting these ethical principles, eco feminism calls for a transformation in how societies perceive and interact with the environment, encouraging practices that are sustainable, just, and respectful of all forms of life. This ethical shift is seen as essential for addressing both environmental crises and social inequalities, fostering a more harmonious and equitable world.

Exploring the Evolution of This Movement

The second wave of feminism, which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, significantly influenced the development of eco feminist ideas by challenging traditional gender roles and advocating for women’s rights in various spheres, including environmental activism. Second-wave feminists brought attention to the ways in which patriarchal systems oppress both women and nature, highlighting the interconnected struggles against gender inequality and ecological degradation.

This period saw the convergence of feminist and environmental movements, with women playing crucial roles in environmental protests, campaigns, and organizations. Influential eco feminists such as Ynestra King and Val Plumwood began to articulate how feminist perspectives could enrich environmental thought, arguing that the liberation of women was intrinsically linked to the health of the planet. The recognition of shared exploitation under patriarchal structures laid the foundation for eco feminism as a distinct movement.

Transition to Third-Wave Feminism

During the third wave of feminism, which began in the 1990s, eco feminist thought evolved to include more diverse and intersectional perspectives. This wave of feminism emphasized the multiplicity of women’s experiences and the intersections of gender with race, class, sexuality, and other identity markers.

Eco feminism expanded its scope to address how environmental issues disproportionately affect marginalized communities, incorporating critiques of environmental racism and global inequities. Third-wave eco feminists such as Vandana Shiva and Wangari Maathai emphasized the need for grassroots activism and the empowerment of indigenous and local communities in environmental conservation efforts.

The movement also began to explore more deeply the cultural and spiritual dimensions of the human-nature relationship, advocating for a holistic and inclusive approach to ecological and social justice.

Modern Eco Feminism

Modern eco feminism continues to evolve, embracing current trends and emerging voices that reflect the dynamic and multifaceted nature of the movement. Contemporary eco feminists are increasingly focused on issues such as climate change, sustainable agriculture, and biodiversity conservation, linking these environmental concerns with social justice initiatives.

The rise of digital activism and global networks has allowed eco feminists to connect and collaborate across borders, amplifying their impact and reach. Young activists, scholars, and practitioners are bringing fresh perspectives and innovative solutions to the forefront, integrating eco feminist concerns into broader environmental and social movements.

Current trends also include a renewed emphasis on decolonization and the recognition of indigenous knowledge systems as vital to sustainable environmental stewardship. By addressing the complex and interconnected challenges of the 21st century (in both developed countries and developing), modern eco feminism remains a vital and evolving force in the pursuit of a more just and sustainable world.

Important Eco-Feminist Figures

Attribution: By Elke Wetzig (Elya) – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2231668

Vandana Shiva is a prominent eco feminist and environmental activist from India whose work has focused on the intersection of gender, ecology, and agricultural practices. She has been a vocal critic of corporate-led industrial agriculture and has advocated for sustainable farming practices that empower women and protect biodiversity.

Karen Warren, a philosopher, has made significant contributions to eco feminist theory through her scholarly work, particularly in developing the conceptual framework of eco feminist ethics and the idea of the interconnectedness of all forms of life.

Mary Daly, a radical feminist theologian, has influenced eco feminism through her critique of patriarchal religion and her advocacy for a spiritual and cultural revolution that honors the sacredness of nature. Each of these figures has played a crucial role in shaping the direction and depth of eco feminist thought and practice.

Their Contributions to Theory and Practice

Vandana Shiva’s contributions to eco feminist discourse include her influential books, such as “Staying Alive: Women, Ecology, and Development,” which critique the impact of global capitalism on women and the environment. She founded the organization Navdanya, which promotes biodiversity conservation and organic farming, providing practical support for women farmers and challenging the hegemony of agribusiness.

Karen Warren’s theoretical contributions are found in her works like “Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It is and Why It Matters,” where she articulates a philosophical basis for eco feminist ethics, emphasizing the moral and epistemological connections between the treatment of women and nature.

Mary Daly’s groundbreaking work, “Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism,” critiques patriarchal structures and proposes a radical feminist vision that reclaims the power and agency of women in harmony with the natural world. Through their writings, activism, and advocacy, these figures have profoundly influenced both the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of eco feminism, fostering a more integrated and holistic approach to environmental and gender justice.

Criticisms and Debates Surrounding Eco-Feminism

One of the key internal debates within eco feminism revolves around the issue of essentialism versus social constructivism. Essentialist perspectives in eco feminism suggest that women have an inherent, natural connection to the environment due to biological and physiological characteristics, often emphasizing nurturing and caregiving roles.

Critics within the movement argue that this essentialist view risks reinforcing traditional gender stereotypes and limiting the diverse experiences and identities of women. In contrast, social constructivists assert that the perceived connections between women and nature are socially and culturally constructed rather than biologically determined.

This debate has led to a richer and more nuanced understanding of the complex relationships between gender and the environment, pushing eco feminism to critically examine and challenge the roots of these connections while acknowledging the diverse ways in which women engage with ecological issues.

External Criticisms Regarding Scientific Rigor and Lack of Credibility

External criticisms of eco feminism come from various fronts, including traditional environmentalists and mainstream feminists. Traditional environmentalists sometimes critique eco feminism for what they perceive as an overemphasis on gender issues at the expense of broader environmental concerns. They argue that focusing too much on gender can dilute the movement’s effectiveness in addressing urgent ecological crises.

Meanwhile, some mainstream feminists critique eco feminism for being too idealistic or spiritually oriented, questioning its practicality and relevance to the feminist struggle for gender equality. Additionally, eco feminism faces criticism for issues related to scientific rigor. Some detractors argue that eco feminist theories can lack empirical support and rely on claims that are not scientifically validated, which can undermine the movement’s credibility.

These criticisms highlight the need for eco feminism to continuously engage with empirical research and integrate scientifically sound practices while maintaining its commitment to addressing the intertwined oppressions of women and the environment.

Valuable Takeaways: Environmental Stewardship and Gender Equality

There are many reasonable criticisms of the eco-feminist movement. However, eco feminism offers several valuable takeaways that significantly contribute to the broader world of gender equality and environmental stewardship. We leave you with a few of those takeaways.

#1 Interconnectedness of Oppressions

Eco feminism highlights the interconnectedness of various forms of oppression, including gender, race, class, and environmental degradation. This perspective encourages a holistic approach to social justice, recognizing that addressing one form of oppression requires addressing others. By linking the exploitation of women with the exploitation of nature, eco feminism underscores the need for integrated solutions that promote both gender equality and environmental health.

#2 Holistic Ethical Frameworks

Eco feminism advocates for ethical frameworks that emphasize care, empathy, and interconnectedness. This contrasts with traditional patriarchal and anthropocentric views that prioritize control and exploitation. The eco feminist ethic of care promotes nurturing relationships between humans and the environment, fostering a sense of responsibility and stewardship that is crucial for sustainable living.

#3 Empowerment of Marginalized Communities

Eco feminism brings attention to the ways in which environmental degradation disproportionately affects women, particularly those in rural and indigenous communities. By empowering these communities and recognizing their vital roles in resource management and environmental conservation, eco feminism promotes social and ecological resilience. This empowerment is essential for achieving sustainable development and gender equality.

#4 Critique of Patriarchal Structures

Eco feminism provides a robust critique of patriarchal structures that contribute to both gender inequality and environmental harm. By challenging economic, political, and cultural systems that prioritize domination and exploitation, eco feminism advocates for systemic changes that promote equity and sustainability. This critique encourages the reevaluation of societal values and the adoption of more collaborative and equitable approaches to problem-solving.

#5 Incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge

Eco feminism values the wisdom and practices of indigenous cultures, which often emphasize harmony with nature and sustainable resource use. By incorporating indigenous knowledge systems into environmental stewardship, eco feminism supports more effective and culturally sensitive approaches to conservation and sustainability. This recognition of diverse knowledge systems enriches the global environmental movement.

#6 Promotion of Sustainable Practices

Eco feminism emphasizes the importance of sustainable practices that respect and preserve the natural world. This includes advocating for organic farming, biodiversity conservation, and renewable energy. By linking these practices with gender justice, eco feminism promotes a vision of sustainability that is inclusive and equitable, ensuring that all members of society benefit from and contribute to environmental health.

#7 Global and Intersectional Perspectives

Eco feminism’s global and intersectional approach recognizes that environmental issues and gender inequality are not confined to specific regions or groups. This perspective encourages global solidarity and collaboration, fostering a more inclusive and comprehensive movement for environmental and social justice. By addressing the diverse impacts of environmental degradation on different communities, eco feminism promotes a more just and equitable world.

#8 Innovation and Adaptability

Modern eco feminism is characterized by its adaptability and openness to new ideas and technologies. This flexibility allows the movement to address emerging environmental challenges, such as climate change, with innovative solutions that integrate feminist principles. By staying relevant and responsive to current issues, eco feminism continues to contribute valuable insights and strategies to the broader fields of gender equality and environmental stewardship.